Blood Gas Analysis

The determination of levels of dissolved  gasses in the bloodstream.

Bubble tight

Ability of the valve to seal against gas pressure and not exhibit a detectable bubble of gas leakage in a one minute period during a bubble test.

Cv, Factor

A value which indicates relative flow capacity of a valve   Cv, is defined as the flow of water at room temperature, in gallons per minute, when the Delta P across the valve equals 1 PSI.

Coil voltage

Voltage at which the coil must be energized if the valve or pump is to perform the required function.

Continuous Duty

A rating given to a coil capable of working continuously under normal operating conditions without overheating or catastrophic failure.


The study of cells as fundamental unitsof living things. The study of chromosomes is a branch of cytology called cytogenetics.


The counting of blood cells, blood cell counting.


The state of a valve or pump when no electrical current is being applied to the coil.  This is also defined as the normal condition, i.e. normally closed, normally open.

Differential Pressure (DP)

The difference in pressure between two points in a fluid system.


To create a specific volume of liquid by pulsing a pump one or more times, until the total volume of liquid required has been pumped.


The state of a valve or pump when electrical current is applied to the coil.


The material being controlled or dispensed by a valve or pump. A fluid can be a gas, vapor or liquid,  Most fluids have friction dependent properties such as viscosity, which affect the way they flow.  If the viscosity of a fluid is low enough so that it can be neglected, the fluid can be considered to be Ideal. If the viscosity of the fluid is not negligible but is constant the fluid is said to be Newtonian.   If the viscosity is neither negligible nor constant, the fluid is said to be non-Newtonian. The fluid is also referred to as the MEDIA.


are easily compressible fluids that expand to fill their containers, and expand indefinitely in the absence of boundary restraints,  As a result of their compressibility, gases may have large change  in volume and density.  However, under conditions of relatively constant pressure and temperature, gases will have relatively constant volumes.

Heat Rise

The difference in internal temperature of a coil when de-energized and energized.  Valcor Scientific uses two grades of coils, UL B Class, which are rated to 1050F, and UL H Class, which are rated to 1800F. To calculate heat rise, use the formula below:

Ambient Temperature + Heat Rise in coil = Total temperature


The study of the function and diseasesof the blood. Typical blood analyzers use protein or enzyme analysis to detect various disorders or diseases of the blood.


Any  of  several  methods  for the  quantitative determination of chemical substances that utilize the highly specific binding between an antigen or hapten and homologous antibodies, including radioimmunoassay, enzyme Immunoassay, and fluoroimmunoassay.


The study of the chemical basis of immunological phenomenat the application of antibodies as chemical reagents.

Intermittent Duty

A rating given to a coil whose heat rise exceeded the coils temperature rating. Use of an intermittent duty coil in continuous duty service can lead to overheating of the coil, and possible catastrophic failure of same.


are  relatively  incompressible fluids that have definite surfaces.  Since they are relatively incompressible,  even relatively large changes in pressure and temperature cause little change in density.


The fluid that passes through a valve or pump.  Typical media are air, oil, gas, water, etc,  See also FLUID.


To create and maintain a specific flow of liquid by continuously pulsing a pump. A liquid can be metered continuously, or over a specific period of time.


A restricted opening through which the media must pass when flowing through the valve.  The orifice is opened and closed to permit or stop flow.   This is accomplished with a poppet, diaphragm or floating seal.


A  photoelectric device for determining the oxygen saturation of the blood.

Oxygen Service

Special cleaning procedure that removes all traces of oils from within a valve to permit use with pure oz.  Many times, cleaning for Oz Service is required for purity purposes, even when 02 is not the media being handled.


The opening in a valve or pump, through which the media enters (inlet) and exits (outlet).


is force per unit area, typically expressed as Pounds per square inch (PSI). There are two ways of expressing pressure:

Absolute pressure

the pressure above a complete vacuum, so that absolute pressures can only have positive values. The absolute pressure of one standard atmosphere at sea level is 14.7 Ib/in2 absolute, or 14.7 psia.

Gage pressure

is absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure as measured by a pressure gage, so that gage pressures above atmospheric are positive and gauge pressures below atmospheric are negative.   The gage pressure of the atmosphere is O Ib/in gage or O psig.

Pressure Head

is the height of a column of fluid that will produce a given pressure:

h = p/w  where
‘h’ is the height of the column of fluid
‘p’ is the pressure generated by the head
‘w’ is the specific weight of the fluid
A column of water 28" high will produce a pressure of 1 PSI.

Response time

The time, usually in milliseconds, required to open or close a valve.   The response time is affected by voltage, pressure and media.  Typical response times for poppet valves is 15 -20 milliseconds, for diaphragm valves, 25 – 35 milliseconds.

Shading Ring

A silver ring staked into a groove in the stop of all AC valves,  Its purpose is to minimize the oscillation or hum usually associated with AC valves.  Without the shading ring, AC valves would buzz loudly, and quickly beat themselves to premature failure.


Part of the solenoid assembly that the plunger impacts upon during the energize portion of the cycle.  Also refereed to as the plug nut.


are gases which may become liquid or solid under increases of pressure and/or decreases of temperature.


of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to shearing forces.   Viscosity generally decreases with rising temperature.  While the viscosities of some fluids vary only slightly, the viscosities of other fluids can vary considerably with temperature. Typical units of measure are SSU, Centistrokes, Centipoise.